This roadmap was prepared by Daniel Murrant, Jonathan Radcliffe and Amruta Joshi, from the Energy Systems and Policy Analysis Group, University of Birmingham, also with the previous support from Energy SUPERSTORE through grant EP/L019469/1.

Thanks to all those who contributed to this Roadmap in particular those who reviewed technical sections of the document and those who participated in the associated workshop.

AEA (2010) Energy Storage and Management Study.

Amiryar, M. and K. Pullen (2017) A Review of Flywheel Energy Storage System Technologies and Their Applications. Applied Sciences. 7(3): p. 286.

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Aurora Energy Research (2018) The e-mobility revolution: impact of electric vehicles on the GB power system and emerging utility business models.

BEIS (2017a) Clean Growth Strategy, Department for Business Energy and Industrial Strategy, HM Government: London.

BEIS (2017b) Contracts for Difference: Government response to the consultation on changes to the CFD contract and CFD regulations, Department for Business Energy and Industrial Strategy.

BEIS (2019a) Provisional UK greenhouse gas emissions national statistics 2019, Department for Business Energy and Industrial Strategy.

BEIS (2019b) The future for small-scale low carbon generation: Smart Export Guarantee - government response, Department for Business Energy and Industrial Strategy. BEIS (2020a) Energy Consumption in the UK 2020, Department for Business Energy and Industrial Strategy;

BEIS (2020b) UK Energy in Brief 2020, Department for Business Energy and Industrial Strategy;

BEIS (2020c) Updated energy and emissions projections 2019. Department for Business Energy and Industrial Strategy, HM Government: London.

BEIS (2020d) Digest of UK Energy Statistics 20120, Department for Business Energy and Industrial Strategy.

BEIS (2020e) Renewable Energy Planning Database (REPD): September 2020, Department for Business Energy and Industrial Strategy

BEIS (2020f) Digest of UK Energy Statistics (DUKES), Department for Business Energy and Industrial Strategy.

BEIS (2020g) Heat networks: building a market framework – consultation document, Department for Business Energy and Industrial Strategy.

BEIS & Ofgem (2017) Upgrading Our Energy System Smart Systems and Flexibility Plan. HM Government: London.

BEIS & Ofgem (2018) Upgrading Our Energy System Smart Systems and Flexibility Plan: Progress Update. HM Government: London.

BIS (2012) Industrial strategy: UK sector analysis, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, HM Government: London.

Brandon, N., et al. (2018) UK research needs in grid scale energy storage technologies. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1568.9206

Carbon Trust (2016) An analysis of electricity system flexibility for Great Britain, Carbon Trust and Imperial College London.

Castagneto Gissey, G., P.E. Dodds, and J. Radcliffe (2018) Market and regulatory barriers to electrical energy storage innovation. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 82: p. 781-790.

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DECC (2014) Implementing Electricity Market Reform, Department for Energy and Climate Change

Delta Energy & Environment (2018), IEA HPT Programme Annex 42: Heat Pump in Smart Grids, Delta Energy & Environment, Edinburg.

DTI (2003) Our energy future–creating a low carbon economy, Department of Trade and Industry, HM Government: London.

Eames, P., Loveday, D., Haines, V. and Romanos, P. (2014) The Future Role of Thermal Energy Storage in the UK Energy System: An Assessment of the Technical Feasibility and Factors Influencing Adoption - Research Report (UKERC: London).

EASE EERA (2017) European Energy Storage Technology Development Roadmap 2017 Update, European Association for Storage of Energy and European Energy Research Alliance.

EASE (2017) Liquid Air Energy Storage, Energy Storage Association

EnergyUK (2017) Ancillary services report 2017.

ERP (2011) The future role for energy storage in the UK, Energy Research Partnership: London.

ERP (2020) Immediate Need for Substantial Investment in Energy Storage, Energy Research Partnership.

ESC (2020) Innovating to Net Zero, Energy Systems Catapult Limited.

ESC (2020b) Storage and Flexibility Net Zero Series: Non-Battery Electricity Storage, Energy Systems Catapult Limited.

ESC (2020c) Storage and Flexibility Net Zero Series: Thermal Energy Storage for Heat Networks, , Energy Systems Catapult Limited.

ETI (2015) Options, Choices, Actions: UK scenarios for a low carbon energy system transition, Energy Technologies Institute.

ETI (2018) District Heat Networks in the UK: Potential Barriers and Opportunities, Energy Technologies Institute.

European Commission (2011), Materials Roadmap Enabling Low Carbon Energy Technologies.

Garvey, S., D., P.C. Eames, J.H. Wang, A.J. Pimm, M. Waterson, R.S. MacKay, M. Giulietti, L.C. Flatley, M. Thomson, J. Barton, D.J. Evans, J. Busby, J.E. Garvey (2015) On generation-integrated energy storage, Energy Policy, 86, 544-551.

Helm, D. (2017) Cost of energy: independent review.

HM Government (2017) Industrial Strategy: building a Britain fit for the future: London.

HM Government (2020) The Ten Point Plan for a Green Industrial Revolution.

Huang, Y., et al. (2017) Techno-economic Modelling of Large Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems. Energy Procedia. 105: p. 4034-4039.

IEA (2014) Technology Roadmap: energy storage, International Energy Agency: Paris.

Institution of Mechanical Engineers (2014) Energy Storage: The Missing Link in the UK’s Energy Commitments.'s-energy-commitments

IRENA (2020) Innovation Outlook: Thermal Energy Storage, International Renewable Energy Agency, Abu Dhabi.

IRENA (2017) Electricity storage and renewables: Costs and markets to 2030, International Renewable Energy Agency. of Commons Library (2019) Research Briefing, Net Zero in the UK;

JRC (2013) Technology Map of the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan), European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Energy and Transport.

Kenisarin, M. and K. Mahkamov, (2016) Salt hydrates as latent heat storage materials:Thermophysical properties and costs. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2016. 145: p. 255-286.

Kern, F., C. Kuzemko, and C. Mitchell (2014) Measuring and explaining policy paradigm change: the case of UK energy policy. Policy & Politics. 42(4): p. 513-530.

Koohi-Kamali, S., et al. (2013) Emergence of energy storage technologies as the solution for reliable operation of smart power systems: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 25: p. 135-165.

Kubota, K. and S. Komaba, (2015) Review—Practical Issues and Future Perspective for Na-Ion Batteries. Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 162(14): p. A2538-A2550.

Larcher, D. and J.M. Tarascon (2015) Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage. Nat Chem. 7(1): p. 19-29.

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Liu, C., Z.G. Neale, and G. Cao (2016) Understanding electrochemical potentials of cathode materials in rechargeable batteries. Materials Today. 19(2): p. 109-123

Lv, W., et al. (2018) A Critical Review and Analysis on the Recycling of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. 6(2): p. 1504-1521.

May, G. J., Davidson, A., Monahov, B. (2018) Lead batteries for utility energy storage: A review, Journal of Energy Storage, 15, 145-157,

McKeon, B.B., J. Furukawa, and S. Fenstermacher (2014) Advanced Lead Acid Batteries and the Development of Grid-Scale Energy Storage Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2014. 102(6): p. 951-963.

MHCLG (2019) English Housing Survey Energy Report, 2017-18, Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government.

Morgan R. Robert, S. Nelmes, Emma Gibson, Gareth Brett (2015) Liquid air energy storage – analysis and first results from a pilot scale demonstration plant, Applied Energy, 137, 845-853

National Grid (2017a) Future Energy Scenarios 2017: Warwick, UK.

National Grid (2017b) System Operability Framework: Black start from distributed sources.

National Grid (2020), Future Energy Scenarios 2020: Warwick, UK.

National Grid (2020b) Medium Range Stock Levels from Data Item Explorer at

National Grid (2020c), FES Modelling Methods 2020.

NGET (2017) Duration-Limited Storage De-Rating Factor Assessment, National Grid Electricity Transmission plc

NP11 (2019) Northern Powerhouse: Energy and Clean Growth.

Ofgem (2020) Decision on clarifying the regulatory framework for electricity storage: changes to the electricity generation licence.

Ofgem (2020b) Guidance for generators: Co-location of electricity storage facilities with renewable generation

Ofgem (2017) Targeted Charging Review: Significant Code Review launch.

OLEV (2018) The Road to Zero: Next steps towards cleaner road transport and delivering our Industrial Strategy, Office for Low Emission Vehicles, HM Government: London.

Pang, Q., et al. (2016) Advances in lithium–sulfur batteries based on multifunctional cathodes and electrolytes. Nature Energy. 1: p. 16132.

Radcliffe, J. and Y. Li (2015), Thermal energy storage in Scotland, Climate Exchange.

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Sarı, A., et al., (2011) Synthesis and thermal energy storage characteristics of polystyrene-graft-palmitic acid copolymers as solid–solid phase change materials. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 95(12): p. 3195-3201.

Scheers, J., S. Fantini, and P. Johansson (2014) A review of electrolytes for lithium–sulphur batteries. Journal of Power Sources, 2014. 255: p. 204-218.

Sciacovelli, A., A. Vecchi, and Y. Ding (2017) Liquid air energy storage (LAES) with packed bed cold thermal storage – From component to system level performance through dynamic modelling. Applied Energy. 190: p. 84-98.

Scottish Government (2017) Scottish Energy Strategy: The future of energy in Scotland

Taylor, P., et al., (2012) Pathways for energy storage in the UK: Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Factsheet, The Centre for Low Carbon Futures.

US Environmental Protection Agency (2016) Wastes - Resource Conservation - Conservation Tools: Batteries.

Vivid Economics and Imperial College (2019) Accelerated Electrification and the GB Electricity System.

Wang, X., et al., (2000) Heat storage performance of the binary systems neopentyl glycol/pentaerythritol and neopentyl glycol/trihydroxy methyl-aminomethane as solid–solid phase change materials. Energy Conversion and Management. 41(2): p. 129-134.

Welsh Government (2018) Energy Generation in Wales

Wilson, I.A.G., P.G. McGregor, and P.J. Hall, (2010) Energy storage in the UK electrical network: Estimation of the scale and review of technology options. Energy Policy. 38(8): p. 4099-4106.

Wilson, G., R. Taylor, and P. Rowley (2018) Challenges for the decarbonisation of heat: local gas demand vs electricity supply, Winter 2017/2018. 2018, UK Energy Research Centre: London.

Wilson, G (2020) Unpublished analysis

WMCA (2018) A Regional Energy Strategy for the West Midlands

Xu, J., R.Z. Wang, and Y. Li, (2014) A review of available technologies for seasonal thermal energy storage. Solar Energy, 2014. 103: p. 610-638.

Zeng, X., J. Li, and N. Singh (2014) Recycling of Spent Lithium-Ion Battery: A Critical Review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 44(10): p. 1129-1165.

Zhou, G., et al. (2014) A Graphene–Pure-Sulfur Sandwich Structure for Ultrafast, Long-Life Lithium–Sulfur Batteries. Advanced Materials. 26(4): p. 625-631.